Weapons of World War Two
At the outbreak of the Second world War, many nations had in their Armed Forces outdated aircraft such as the biplanes; among these distinguished itself the fighter Gloster Gladiator of the Royal Air Force. Designed in 1930, it had, for that time, some characteristics that surpassed the ones of other British aircraft. The armament was twice than normal, the same happened with the speed and the possibility of operating as night fighter rendered it as a first rate interceptor.
Unfortunately, the first flight of the prototype did not happen until 1935, and the series deliveries until 1937, when it had already been surpassed by more modern aircraft, such as the splendid Messerschmitt Me Bf 109, in action from 1936. However it would continue flying until 1941, when it was retired from the combat to be used as training aircraft or for meteorological purposes. It had the baptism of fire in the Russo-Finnish War and then it operated in the French front of the Mediterranean, North Africa and East Africa; it did not take active part in the Battle of Britain.
It had a robust structure, of easy construction, but of outdated conception: with only metallic materials, but with identical technique to that of the wooden biplanes from the First World War. Entirely coated in fabric, it was fitted with a Bristol Mercury engine of nine cylinders, with a power of 830 horsepower. The pilots were not enthusiastic of it, because of its few advantages, light armament and vulnerability. Often it had the losing side against the enemies. It could be equalled only to the CR 42 of the Italian Royal Aviation, being a tremendous adversary of these.
Despite its severe disadvantages, the British pilots achieved victories, specially against the Italians, albeit many were not confirmed by the enemy. Besides, the very British admitted that the legendary deeds of the three Sea Gladiator (aircraft carrier version) "Faith", "Hope" and "Charity", which defended Malta in the summer of 1940, were product of a legend well exploited by the propaganda. It ended so, in the skies of the Mediterranean, the operative life of an aircraft that had been born too late to be appreciated as it deserved.
First flight: 12 September 1934
Wingspan: 9.83 meters
Wing area: 30.01 square meters
Length: 8.36 meters
Height: 3.57 meters (Mark I); 3.52 meters (Mark II and Sea Gladiator)
Full load/Empty weight: 2083/1633 kilograms (Mark I); 2206/1745 kilograms (Mark II); 2227/1815 kilograms (Sea Gladiator)
Payload/Crew: 450 kilograms/1 (Mark I); 461 kilograms/1 (Mark II); 462 kilograms/1 (Sea Gladiator)
Engine: Bristol Mercury IX of 830 horsepower (Mark I); Bristol Mercury VIII A or VIII AS of 840 horsepower (Mark II and Sea Gladiator)
Time to reach 4572 meters of altitude: 5 minutes 40 seconds (Mark I and Mark II); 5 minutes 55 seconds (Sea Gladiator)
Maximum speed: 407 kilometers/hour at 4420 meters (Mark I); 407 kilometers/hour at 4450 meters (Mark II); 413 kilometers/hour at 4450 meters (Sea Gladiator)
Service ceiling: 9997 meters (Mark I); 9814 meters (Mark II); 10211 meters (Sea Gladiator)
Defensive armament: Four Colt-Browning 7.7-millimeter machine guns
Operational range: 689 kilometers at 362 kilometers/hour and 4420 meters (Mark I); 714 kilometers at 362 kilometers/hour and 4450 meters (Mark II); 668 kilometers at 354 kilometers/hour and 4450 meters (Sea Gladiator)
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