Weapons of World War Two
Char B1-bis heavy tank
The Char B was surely the armored element in service in the French Army, between 1939 and 1940, produced in largest number. The prototype of this tank, coming from a study which dated back from 1920, saw the light in 1930, but six more years of tests and modifications had to pass for the Char B to acquire the characteristics of a series tank. This tank, whose hull was composed of cast steel plates riveted one to another over a framework of stringers, was an element of rather satisfying effectiveness, but it had some basic inconveniences that prevented it to show exceptional performance in the encounters with other contemporary tanks serving in other armies.
To start, its main weapon (a short 75-millimeter cannon) was emplaced in fixed position instead of rotatory turret, so to aim it it was necessary to rotate the whole tank. At the same time, the weapon installed in the turret was a 47-millimeter cannon, a good antitank piece in that time. But it had the defect of being operated only by the tank commander, placed in the turret of small dimensions. To dispose the maneuver of the tank, evaluate the situation around and operate the weapon were without doubt too many things to do for a sole person. On the other hand, the Char B was fitted with some rather modern details: for example, the device to rotate the turret was electric, the instruments were rational and efficient, and the suspension, of a somewhat complex type, granted a good stability to the tank.
Besides, the tank was equipped with a smoke evacuator, built as those used in the naval artillery turrets to prevent the opening of the breech, between shots, from filling the combat chamber with the smoke and gases from the deflagration. The tracks, of all-around type, confered the tank the appearance of a tank from the Great War, but they granted an excellent march, specially on rough terrain, facilitated access operations and, in the event of emergency, the quick evacuation of a part of the crew. But they also made the maintenance of the tank somewhat more complex and increased the vulnerability to side impacts.
The engine was a Renault of aeronautic construction, of 300 horsepower and start up by magneto. The armament, which as aforementioned consisted of a short 47-millimeter cannon (apart from the 75-millimeter cannon and two machine guns), was enhanced in 1938, replacing the 47-millimeter cannon by a longer one in the Char B1-bis, of improved characteristics. Still, the Char B could resist discreetly the encounter with the German tanks during the campaign of France.
Weight: 32 tonnes
Length: 6.50 meters
Width: 2.49 meters
Height: 2.82 meters
Ground clearance: 45 centimeters
Maximum armor: 60 millimeters
Engine: Renault of 300 horsepower
Maximum speed: 29 kilometers/hour
Operational range: 200 kilometers
Armament: One 75-millimeter cannon; one 47-millimeter cannon; two 7.5-millimeter machine guns
Ammunitions: 77 of 75 millimeters; 50 of 47 millimeters; 5100 of 7.5 millimeters
Maximum surmountable trench: 2.75 meters
Maximum surmountable step: 1.10 meters
Maximum surmountable slope: 40 degrees
Fording: 0.72 meters
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