[1] Figurehead [2] Bowsprit [3] Cathead [4] Fore mast [5] Forecastle [6] Waist with barred parapets [7] Main mast [8] Quarterdeck [9] Mizzen mast [10] Sterncastle [11] Poop deck [12] Flag pole [13] Lantern [14] Stern and quarter galleries [15] Rudder [16] Sternpost [17] Keel [18] Stem [19] Cutwater [20] Beak with fairleads [21] Gunport [22] Reinforcing belt [23] Hold [24] Main mast base with bilge pump ducts [25] Supporting pillar [26] Mess deck [27] Mooring bitts [28] Lower gun deck [29] Main capstan [30] Main cargo hatch [31] Middle gun deck [32] Main ventilation gratings [33] Upper gun deck [34] Entry door [35] Aft ladder group [36] Rudder's tiller with whipstaff [37] Navigation officers' quarters [38] Senior officers' quarters and commander's cabin

The 26th June 1634, while visiting the Woolwich shipyards, Charles I of England requested from naval carpenter Phineas Pett the construction of the largest and most powerful warship in the world. In October of the same year, Pett had finished a model fitted with every detail and, based on it, the King approved the construction of the Sovereign of the Seas. The keel, which had a thickness of 80 centimeters, was laid in January 1636; 32 draft animals were used to transport this huge single piece. In September 1637 the hull was ready for being launched. The first attempt failed due to the low tide, but some days later the favorable wind and tidal conditions allowed to effectuate the maneuver at midnight. From the 65586 sterling pounds spent in the construction and equipment of the ship, 6691 corresponded to the sculpted, carved and gilded decoration which earned her the nickname "Golden Devil".

The construction of the Sovereign of the Seas presented four important innovations. The first was that the ship was rigged with three masts, unlike the previous capital ships which had four. From that moment, the successive military and civilian ships followed this example. The second was that the ship had a round stern instead of the traditional flat stern, example which was followed by every English naval designer until the middle of the 19th century. The third was that she was the first ship rigged with four square sails in the main mast and the fore mast: main sail, topsail, topgallant sail and royal sail. And, finally, the Sovereign of the Seas was the first English warship built with three gun decks, that is to say, three decks where the artillery pieces were placed uninterruptedly from the stern to the prow.

Specifications of Sovereign of the Seas gallion

Displacement
Normal: 1540 tonnes
Dimensions
Length: 71 meters (232 feet 11.3 inches)
Beam: 15 meters (49 feet 2.55 inches)
Draught: 7.2 meters (23 feet 7.46 inches)
Propulsion
Sails: 13
Armament
16 x forward cannon (16 gunports)
80-82 x broadside cannon (82 gunports)
4-6 x aftward cannon (6 gunports)

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