HMS Victory
HMS Victory

Anatomy of the ship of the line
Anatomy of the ship of the line

Spanish ships of the line
Spanish ships of the line

The art of transom
The art of transom

Sovereign of the Seas
Sovereign of the Seas

The Wasa
The Wasa

Dutch warships around 1670

While England and France built many three-deck warships in the 17th century, the Dutch were content with a few. The most common Dutch warship had two gun decks, probably because they preferred ships of lower draught. These were also of lighter construction than the British counterparts, and even if they were faster and more maneuverable, this greater lightness resulted disastrous in many artillery duels. However, Dutch naval construction was influential in foreign countries. Peter the Great personally studied naval construction in Zaandam, Holland, in 1667 and already before the French, Swedish, Danish and Germans had benefited from the Dutch expertise.

Dutch 48-gun ship of the line, 1670
In their external appearance, Dutch warships only differed from the English and French counterparts in the modesty of their decoration, for their sides were completely flat. The lining of the quarter galleries, which housed the toilets of the officers, as well as that of the sterncastle and quarterdeck bulwarks was of clinker type to combine lightness with robustness. The transom was decorated by a coat of arms framed by diverse decorations of the Dutch baroque, with lions, soldiers, cupids and caryatids with friezes, voluts and other ornaments. In the early century the transom was crowned by a single and huge lantern, but later they were three or five.

During the 17th century the beakhead was gradually curved upwards, mainly because a low beakhead, specially in small ships, was too wet, but probably also to give more graceful lines to the forecastle. The cutwater, support of the beakhead, and generally holed on its upper part like a coiled vine, was in turn attached to the sides of the hull by the robust curves of the beakhead. The bulwarks of this one began on the front of the forecastle, often with an ornament in the shape of a helmeted head, then performing a graceful curve towards the prow, to end in a volute in the meeting point above the red lion which Dutch ships always wore as figurehead. Depending on the size of the ship, there were four bands on each side linked to the core of the beakhead. This one served traditionally as the toilet of the crew. A part of the deck protruded before the forecastle and from this one emerged the catheads, which rested through a block on the upper band of the beakhead.

The wide gratings which protected the waist deck in former times had disappeared, but the gun decks beneath were ventilated through gratings installed on the access hatches. During bad weather, the gratings would be covered with waxed fabrics. The bulwarks on the waist were heightened by a parapet with holes for the rifles of the soldiers. In many ships the tiller of the rudder was passed through the quarterdeck so the pilot could be outdoor. In the illustration above, the tiller and the binnacle can be seen behind the mizzen mast. In the forecastle, waist and quarterdeck there are large V-shaped cleats on the inner side of the bulwarks to tie up the tacks. At the base of the main and fore masts there are fife rails with belaying pins and other pins are on the railings of the forecastle, quarterdeck and poop deck to secure halyards, tacks, sheets and other rigging maneuvers. The cannons were built in bronze, which is lighter than iron and resistant to corrosion, but more expensive and less resistant to the pressure of the gases.

For some unknown reason, reef points fell in disuse in the large ships during more than one century. They were seen in stamps from the early 15th century and continued in use until the beginning of the following century, but then they disappear, to be seen again around 1660 in the large topsails. To reef these very trapezoidal sails the yards had to be enlarged. The topping lifts of the main and top yards passed through violin-shaped blocks, which have two sheaves in a same plane, and the sheets of the topsails passed through the same blocks and from there, through a block attached to the yard, next to the mast, descended to the deck.

The following illustration, on which we can see the aforementioned rigging elements, represents the 72-gun ship of the line Gouda, built in 1665. Note the elegant and characteristic shape of the transom crowned by five lanterns, the four red lions and the rich decoration.

72-gun ship of the line Gouda, 1665
And this is yet another depiction of a Dutch warship of the same period. For some reason the artist ommitted the topgallant masts.

Dutch ship of the line, second half of the 17th century

The Prince, 1670

In England, around 1660, it was customary to make models of the largest vessels that were projected, submitting them to the King and the Admiralty for their approval before being built. One of the oldest models of the Admiralty, preserved in the South Kensington Science Museum, is that of the 100-gun ship of the line Prince, from 1670. English warships were built to grant stable platforms for the heaviest artillery and because of this they were heavy and of great draught. In this excellent depiction of the model the richly decorated beakhead is not visible but we can see how the cathead and the gunports are decorated. Almost all of the ornamention is gilded over black background, as in the Sovereign of the Seas, but to the gilded parts of the model actually corresponded yellow paint, and only the royal arms, always represented in the stern in the English vessels, were actually gilded.

100-gun ship of the line HMS Prince, 1670

The maturity of the ship of the line

Until the mid 17th century, all the warships of different size and armament which constituted a fleet took part in naval actions without following any particular order. But in 1653 the English Admiralty ordered that the warships should fight arranged on a line to improve the effectiveness of the barrages. Apart from the good training and discipline of their crews, the different vessels should be in conditions of sailing at the same speed and be armed on a roughly similar way, for otherwise a less armed vessel in the line could be forced to fight a superior enemy.

As a result warships were classified in six rates according to their armament. A first-rate warship had more than 90 guns; a second-rate ship had more than 80 guns; a third-rate ship had more than 50 guns; a fourth-rate ship had more than 38 guns; a fifth-rate ship had more than 18 guns; and a sixth-rate ship had more than six guns. Those of first rate were considered powerful enough to fight in a line and because of that they were called ships of the line. The salaries of the officers were proportional to the rate of their ships. The thresholds within rates would suffer variations over time as warships were gradually built with heavier armament, but in general they became a standard in the classification of warships, even in foreign nations.

The following longitudinal cross section, based on a contemporary engraving, shows the inner mysteries and charms of an English first-rate ship of the line from the late 17th century. The cannons have not been included for reasons of clarity, but every other minimally important detail has been included.

Cross section of an English first-rate ship of the line from the late 17th century

1 - Forecastle deck with gratings for ventilation :: 2 - Forecastle :: 3 - Capstan for maneuvers :: 4 - Waist deck with gratings for ventilation :: 5 - Quarterdeck :: 6 - Cabin for the second in command and pilot officers :: 7 - Poop deck :: 8 - Cabin for the commander and officers :: 9 - Box for signal flags :: 10 - Chamber for officers :: 11 - Cabin for the Admiral :: 12 - Balcony (open balconies were common in English warships of the late century) :: 13 - Kitchen with exhaust to the forecastle :: 14 - Middle gun deck with gratings for ventilation :: 15 - Cabins for officers (they consisted of bulkheads which were removed before entering combat to clear the deck) :: 16 - Rudder tiller :: 17 - Chamber for volunteers and officers of the Army :: 18 - Bitts for the anchor cables :: 19 - Lower gun deck :: 20 - Capstan for weighing anchors :: 21 - Capstan for maneuvers :: 22 - Powder magazine and rudder tiller :: 23 - Orlop (the deck after the main mast was used as infirmary and combat hospital) :: 24 and 25 - Bilge pumps :: 26 - Hold :: 27 - Struts for supporting the beams :: 28 - Diagonal struts

Innovations in the rigging: staysails and studdingsails

When reefing was introduced on the main sail, it was common to rig even the largest ships of the line without topgallant masts, and this simplification was common even for the lesser units, such as the fourth-rate ship of the line shown in the illustration below. It is uncertain when the utilization of studdingsails became generalized, but they were mentioned already in 1549, in relation with a Scottish galleass. Staysails, used in lesser ships from the 15th century, seem to have been introduced on the large ships around 1660, time on which are mentioned as well the footropes which run below the yards to support those who work on the sails. Also from the mid century spiderlines were reeved from the fore face of the tops, now wider, to the stays beneath them, to protect the topsails from the friction against them.

Rigging of a fourth-rate ship of the line from the late 17th century

1 - Studdingsail :: 2 - Mizzen staysail :: 3 - Main staysail :: 4 - Topmast staysail :: 5 - Spiderline :: 6 - Footrope :: 7 - Fore staysail (or jibsail)

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